Monday, January 13, 2020

Planning Human Resource Essay

Human resource planning has a major role to meet the company objectives in professional and efficient comportment. In this case study planning process is to meet the short term, by having the right people and the right skills of workforce to supply demands of the new contract at the same time to adjust staffing change for long term objectives. As an HR manager main role is to meet business needs through workforce planning. Part of the planning is to investigate and gather information where the company stands now where we want to take it and how to do that. I can employ the Manpower requirement approach for Human resource planning, to analyse the current situation and estimate future needs and implement the new strategy. The manpower requirement approach enables the HR to investigate the quality and the quantity of the existing workforce and analyse the company situation, forecast an adequate number of skilled manpower to satisfy future needs and achieve targets. 1- Analyse the current workforce: to learn about employees profile, expertise, age education, roles and gather information about staff rotation, this data base permit the company to evaluate the core competences and the power of it is human capital, identify surplus or shortage for short term and long term targets and measure it up with the company objectives and capabilities to appraise the current productivity, Moreover to evaluate the corporate strategy alignment with the vision and mission. 2- Forecast future manpower: identify supply and demand. Expect the quantity and characteristics of the manpower in demand for future needs based on projecting employer past trends. Using previous trends of employment of a specific qualifications and expertise employed earlier in the past years by the company to ensure productivity. â€Å"In this approach an attempt is made to forecast future requirements of educated manpower to fulfil a future target of Gross National Product (GNP) or specified targets of industrial production†. (According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010) Predict directions and development in each size of individual sectors of the economy. Use series of data and historical trends to acquire the ratio between the growth of the skills of the workforce and output growth. This method allow to associate experienced manpower and their productivity influencing the economic growth in a specific sector. According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010, â€Å"the fundamental axioms of manpower requirements approach is that there is a definite link between the education and the economic growth and the lack of skilled manpower in required number impedes growth†. Analyse and estimate the requirements of educated manpower to develop and advance, by assessing different factors engagement level, wastage and recession rate. Estimate the level of labour force participants by comparing the participant’s rates and the number of graduates for a specific occupation. The main strengths of this method are estimating and comparing the demand and supply over a period of time in a specific economy and correlate this with the total population level of employment and production. Moreover this approach helps the company to identify future needs for development and training allowing them to categorise. According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010,† this approach assess the skill requirements to achieve any predetermined economic growth, and to gear the expansion of educational system to provide the needed education and training† However there are some flaws in the Manpower Requirements approaches. The first limitation: The Manpower requirement approach, link skilled manpower to a specific occupation task, however it’s limited to be valid since it is not including the price and the cost of formal training and education to produce such educated level required, and it can only be relevant to developing countries, where high proportion of manpower have obtained these skills through informal learning and job experience. According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010, â€Å"in the Indian context, it has been observed that over 30 percent of the manpower do not have the basic minimum qualification. They have reached these levels through on-the-job training and such other informal training in the requisite skills.† The second limitation: This method confirms that there are no replacements for the required skilled manpower; however we cannot expect to find in one country all jobs requiring a specific skill to be executed by manpower having the same category of education. According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010, â€Å"the educated manpower of different types are used in fixed proportions and that there no substitutions possibilities among the various categories of educated manpower†. The future is uncertain, technological and economical factors constantly changing affect the patterns of demands predicted in an earlier stage, since estimated skilled or unskilled labour force is derived from the patterns of services or goods in demand, this approach is relatively unreliable for future for long turn estimates and can produce large errors. According to Mahapatro, et al. 2010, â€Å"Any error in judgment, in this regard, will seriously affect manpower balances at a later date resulting in either excess supply or excess demand†. Flexibility For example the Audit Commission, they have developed different type of employment to meet their business needs. â€Å"†These different contracts help the Audit Commission to cope with all of its changing needs. They also help it to be flexible.† (The Times 100, 2013) The Audit Commission is constantly faced with peaks and troughs in the workload that cannot be met simply by having its employees on full-time contracts. There are situations where they need either more staff or fewer staff. By increasing or reducing staff in these situations the Audit Commission has developed numerical flexibility. (The Times 100, 2013) As we know the organisation had some success stories and some unstable situation, HR planning at this phase after winning a new contract is extremely crucial. We can learn from the Audit Commission and apply flexibility to be able to meet future business needs without raising employment cost and by avoiding downsizing. I can suggest developing and applying flexible working patterns by introducing different type of employment contracts. The internal labour market 350 employees 95% of them have permanent contract consisting the core group of the organization having the skills and knowledge to work in many roles, the abovementioned manpower enable the organisation to run the daily operation having the expertise the knowhow of the company production standards and quality, and they can meet the enquiries in an efficient ways. However the company has recently won a new contract that might implicate needs for recruitment. The existing 95% will remain on permanent contracts and will consist the 75% of the company new structure, as for the new workforce joining the company we can introduce different type of contract to hire them in order to maintain the flexibility of the organisation. They consists the first peripheral and the second peripheral. In the company situation we are examining to hire the first peripheral group that is numerically flexible and the second peripheral group that include employees on short-terms or contractors from agencies, where the organisation needs more staff, that will not by necessary after the production demands of the new contracts are met. As for a construction company that have just signed a new hotel construction project that will end in 5 years, they cannot afford to hire employees on permanent contracts for the new project, as they will have surplus after the hotel is build. In this situation by applying the new working patterns the manufacturing company can meet the new contract needs and ensure that we will not have a manpower surplus after the project is done, it is always easy to increases the number of the workforce but not simple to reduce it. Since the company have liabilities toward their workforce. The cost is extremely high to offer all its employees benefits, health insurance, schooling, bonuses and end of service indemnities. Question 2: As we have discussed before temporary workers play a significant role in current fast pace evolving industries, no matter how skilled or unskilled they are, a certain amount of training is required to make sure they can perform well the assigned tasks. We have to plan the training process and identify the gaps. According to Gomez-Mejia et al, 2012 â€Å"The trainng process consists of three phases: (1) needs assessment, (2) development and conduct of training, and (3) evaluation.† 2.1 Assessment Needs: The type of training should be linked to the organisation goals, in our organisation situation the company needs to meet the new project production needs on time efficiently without compromising the quality. By hiring the new temporary workforce, the company is not looking to develop them or invest in them, as they are only hired to assure the production for a certain period. However we need their contribution to achieve company goals and meet business demand, the required training should enable them to acquire the skills and the knowledge, by identifying a certain type of training that will ensure they are prepared to do the assigned tasks and have the complete knowledge of the company procedures and safety related issue. 2.2 Development and conduct of training We can refer to Aldi’s company case study that was experiencing a rapid expansion and needed to recruit more than 4,000 employees. It is not so easy to involve a large number of employees and engage them to the company objectives, we can examine below how Aldi’s planned to train the new workforce and make them committed to their new roles. They have chosen to provide the on-the-job-training. â€Å"On-the-job training is training that takes place while employees are actually working. It means that skills can be gained while trainees are carrying out their jobs. This benefits both employees and the business. Employees learn in the real work environment and gain experience dealing with the tasks and challenges that they will meet during a normal working day. The business benefits by ensuring that the training is specific to the job. It also does not have to meet the additional costs of providing off-the-job training or losing working time†. (The Times 100, 2013) we can use the same training approach to apply it to our organisation, as we have to be careful about the cost. At the beginning we have to introduce them to the work place they are joining, an induction training should be provided to familiarize the new group joining to the company and colleagues, this orientation ensure their understanding to the company structure and the corporate culture and we can gain their involvement from day one to the organisation objectives and goals. We are examining here the instrumental learning type. On job training approach is applicable in this case study as it is considered cost effective and does not require an expert trainer to be hired from outside the company to teach them specific skills or to provide a certain knowledge. â€Å"OJT also spares the organisation the expense of taking employees out of the work environment for training and usually the cost of hiring outside trainer, because employees generally are capable of doing the training† †. (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2012) At the same it can deliver a clear message about the company expectation while saving time, as senior skilled staff can train new employees divided in groups depending on job requirement and the group can actually learn the required skill while conducting day-to-day activities, it allow them to observe and try. One of benefits for the company will be having skilled employees that will need less supervision to perform tasks in the future, furthermore that will increase the loyalty to the employer and employees relationships, since they will be interacting closely with the senior staff for the training period. In addition they can get guidance and learn new technologies practically rather than theorist, where most of the times theories are not so clear to be applicable. â€Å"The guided on the-job training approach helps build relationships†. (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2012). The informal training or the OJT can enhance relationships between the workforce interacting together to acquire skills and learn better about our organisation, it can be also considered as socializing activity since they can be more open and communicate easily with no barrier, this process will make effective the on-boarding new employees. â€Å"Socialization is not a single event. Rather, socialisation is the iterative process between the new employee and the organisation as the individual develop skills, knowledge, role behaviour, and adjustment to norms and values in response to needs and expectations of organisation. (Jolton et al, 2010). For the employees it helps them to be more motivated and self confident about the job, where they can gain more skills in a practical way. They can get guidance and learn new technologies practically rather than theorist, where most of the times theories are not so clear to be applicable. We have to plan carefully the On-the-Job-Training, to allow immediate benefits and reduce the unproductive breaking-in period of the new joiners. If we leave them to learn through unplanned methods employees may feel anxious unmotivated as they are not confident about their job roles and performance. Since we are aiming for temporary manpower and flexible working patterns this method is considered efficient to make them productive as quickly as possible. In addition the OJT permit to examine at early stage employees basic skills problems, for this scenario we can plan for further training for a certain group, simply it can eliminate skills deficiency. Question 3: 3.1 Benefits of Diversity at the workplace. a. Internal advantages. Emerging economy, constantly changes in lifestyle and social demands stimulate people to move from their native countries to a better place, society are becoming more diverse. One car type cannot fit to one population; diversity in choice can make a difference and appeal to everyone. By recruiting a diverse workforce we won’t be only addressing legislation or avoiding discrimination lawsuits, but we ensure engaging our stakeholders’ demands. Avoiding the stereotype in recruitment is the key success for the company to become an employer of choice. Diversity at the workplace can bring a pool of creativity and new ideas; contribution from people coming from different background can advance work and give the ability to the company to comprehend better our stakeholders’ needs and demands. People having different cultural perspectives and lifestyle can give different ideas about the same subject and convey wider exposure for the company. According to Gomez-Mejia et al, 2012, â€Å"to survive and prosper in an increasingly heterogeneous society, organisations must capitalize on employee diversity as a source of competitive advantage†. Regardless that managing employee diversity is politically correct, diverse workforce enhance better problem solving, in our manufacturing company people tend to work in groups, interacting together can solve occurring problems easier as their life experience is dissimilar and they will approach the arising problems differently. Demographic and Cultural diversity can draw more flexibility to the company culture; sharing different experiences can make the work smoother and enjoyable, since learning is wider and more open. b. External advantages A team of different people sharing life experiences and values can improve our corporate culture to become a multicultural organisation having the experience to understand better international market, this advantage can aid the company to generate more profits and widen our market. Talented people are not limited to one culture, certain age or religion, our aim is to match the right people to the right job, so why to slim our choices since we can recruit from a pool of talents. By offering equal opportunity and overlooking differences we can focus better on having the right skills, Cultural diversity at the workplace can promote competitive advantage over rivals, Moreover respecting individual diversities in recruitment can increase productivity and promote the business image. Diversity at the workplace is the key to stay competitive and to be able to cope to the fast changing economy. â€Å"Given the global nature of business today, organisations have to create very specific and effective recruitment efforts to build a deep reservoir of global as well local talent to staff all their organisational levels. (Jolton et al, 2010) As example we can spot the light to Tesco operating in UK where people from different culture and background lives. â€Å"Tesco recognises that every person is different and will bring unique talents and experiences to a role†. (The Times 100, 2013). According to Tesco; â€Å"Difference can be our strength because talent and diversity are two sides of the same coin. To focus on one while ignoring the other is like trying to run a store with no customers – it just won’t work’†. (The Times 100, 2013). 3.2 Employee Diversity Challenges. However some challenges can draw, if diversity is not correctly managed in our organisation, as we can face negative outcomes in communication and productivity Resistance to change from majority and cultural clashes may occur, people tend not to accept each other easily especially if they consider minority inferior, or not as qualified to compete for a promotion or a career development. Cultural diversity may create a barrier between majority and minorities what can affect teamwork and participation. Communication flow might be distracted; people tend to be more involved in relationships with colleagues having the same culture and background, as they share same point of view and lifestyle, minorities can be left out of the company mainstream. Minorities will start to be unmotivated and not satisfied in the work environment and significant turnover and absenteeism can face the company. Diversity can enhance creativity, however minorities being ignored and less valued, will affect their enthusiasm and involvement in the company goals and achievement, and they won’t be able to perform efficiently and effectively due to the low morale. â€Å"Conversely, the proponents of relativity argue that failure to adapt HR practices to the needs of a diverse population may alienate much of the workforce and reduce their potential contributions†. (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2012) References: 1- Mahapatro,. Bhussan,B., 2010. Human Resource Management. New Delhi: New Age International Limited. Available from: [Accessed 30 June 2013]. 2- The Times 100 Business Case Studies, 2013. Flexible working patterns An Audit Commission Case Study. The Times 100. Available from: [Accessed 3 July 2013]. 3- Gomez-Mejia,L., Balkin,D., and Cardy,R,. 2012. Managing Human Resources. Seventh Edition. United States of America. Pearson Education, Inc. 4- Jolton,J,. Lundby, K,. 2010. Going Global: Practical Applications and Recommendations for HR and OD Professionals in the Global Workplace. United States of America: Jossey-Bass. Available from: [Accessed 16 June 2013].

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Evolution of Humans Essay - 578 Words

The Evolution of Humans The evolution of humans was (and is) a very important time. The first being of evolution was Australopithecus Afarensis or â€Å"Lucy†. Then we moved on to Homo erectus and Homo Neanderthal. When the weather got hotter, we were Homo Sapiens Sapiens and finally, the modern man. This evolution did not happen overnight. It took millions of years. The past is hardly forgotten, but the imminent is next. The future of evolution is being studied as well as the past. Most people were skeptical of the idea that humans are not a perfect species but scientists all over the globe have made some shocking discoveries. Now that humans have researched the past changes, we can assume the future of evolving humans. We can tell we are†¦show more content†¦The evolution of humans took a very long time but it was all in good reason. The Australopithecus Afarensis was the first â€Å"man†. The â€Å"Lucy† (another name for Australopithecus Afarensis) w as an ape-like creature that roamed for a few million years and was first to discover food. Lucy was first of many but had the most struggles. The animal starved until it ate and had to learn from trial-and-error. If the orange berries made you sick, you didn’t eat the orange berries. If the sapling that has red fruits gave delicious food, then you ate that red fruit. Meat did not come until the Neanderthals starved for any type of food so they hunted. Then came the Homo erectus which is pretty much a Lucy with less hair. The evolution occurred due to too much hair making Lucy hot. The Evolution was also for the ice age. But as the ice thawed, we evolved into the Homo Neanderthal, or Neanderthal. The Neanderthal was a Homo erectus with even less hair than Lucy. The Neanderthal was the being that created tools and changed life on earth. Forever. When the Neanderthal created tools, houses came along pretty fast. When the house came along, the need to climb trees became less and less. After the need to climb trees was unnecessary, the need for long, climbing toes became useless and so, the long, climbing toes turned to short, stubby toes. Afterwards, the Homo Sapiens Sapiens came along which no big deal. The beings where just shedding hair that never grew back. When the hair was lost,Show MoreRelatedThe Evolution Of Human Evolution1103 Words   |  5 PagesHuman evolution according to research started over 6 million years ago. The outcome of the evolution process is the current human beings. Scientific studies have revealed over the years a remarkable affinity between the chimpanzees/Apes and human beings. Even though this reality is not a definitive prove that human beings evolved from apes, it does show that the human beings are in one way or another related to other primates. Scientists suppose that the humans and the primates shared a commonRead MoreEvolution And Its Impact On Human Evolution910 Words   |  4 Pages Humans have gone through many stages of adaptation, allowing for great expansion and our unrivaled dominance of the earth. So it could seem as though humans have reached the peak of evolutionary development. Evolution is often thought of as a natural process, and were it not for humans, this might be true. However, evolution, in the strictest sense, is a change in the genetic structure of a population (Jurmain, et al., 5). While natural selection is a major contributor to the process of evolutionRead MoreThe Evolution Of Humans And Humans978 Words   |  4 PagesHumans have existed on Earth for approximately 3.4 million years. The oldest known human ancestor is Lucy, an Australopithecus. Over this extensive period of time, humans have evolved significantly. Homo Sapiens have grown from 3 to almost 6 feet (average), lost most of the body hair, became leaner and adapted to walking. Humans have come a long way, from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens, from living in trees to living in ci ties. Slowly, through hundreds of thousands of years, we mutated over andRead MoreEvolution of Human3142 Words   |  13 PagesHuman evolution is the biological and cultural development of humans. A human is any member of the species Homo sapiens, meaning wise man. Since at least the Upper Paleolithic era, some 40,000 years ago, every human society has devised a creation myth to explain how humans came to be. Creation myths are based on cultural beliefs that have been adopted as a legitimate explanation by a society as to where we came from. The science of paleoanthropology, which also tries to create a narrative aboutRead MoreEvolution And Its Effect On Human Evolution1826 Words   |  8 Pages It is the key to our evolution is very much correct. Beneficial mutation can be a next step of human evolution as people get more adapted to their environment, greatly increasing their chance of successfully reproducing. Evolution is the process of the characteristics of an organism changing over a long period of time. There are two types of evolution: micro, where gene frequencies are shifted within the population, and macro, where a whole new species arises. Evolution occur through naturalRead MoreConvergent Evolution Of Human Evolution972 Words   |  4 Pagesinstance of human evolution has been detected among the peoples of East Africa. It is the ability to digest milk in adulthood, conferred by genetic changes that occurred as recently as 3,000 years ago, a team of geneticists has found.The finding is a striking example of a cultural practice — the raising of dairy cattle — feeding back into the human genome. It also seems to be one of the first instances of convergent human evolution to be documented at the genetic level. Convergent evolution refers toRead MoreHuman Evolution2755 Words   |  12 PagesHuman Evolution Human Evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Tools of stone, bone, and wood, as well as fire hearths, campsites, and burials, also have been discovered and excavated. As a result of these discoveries, a picture of human evolution during the past 4 to 5 million years has emerged. Human Physical Traits Humans areRead MoreHuman Evolution And The Human Race Essay1126 Words   |  5 Pagesof an earlier work written for this class. I feel there is room to not only clarify ideas proposed, but expand and introduce supplemental ones to further define previous claims. The aim is to propose that though evolution and innovation are incredibly beneficial and important to the human race, through a series of questionable morals and vast amounts of wrongdoings have created a situation of over-innovation, or innovating past the point of benefit. Though from a cynical perspective, it is vital thatRead MoreHuman Primates And Human Evolution990 Words   |  4 PagesNon-human Primate Behaviors Intissar Khalaf Anthropology/Human Evolution Question #3: Why are non-human primates studied for how their behaviors related to our own origins? What types of studies are conducted and have these studies changed in recent years? Why or why not? We study nonhuman primate behavior to help us better understand us as humans and our behavior compared to nonhuman primates. Clearly there are differences in behavior among different species of primates - especially humans. SimilarRead MoreHuman Evolution Of Human History879 Words   |  4 PagesThe beginning of human history, is no longer a gray area on the behalf of historians, scientist and perhaps geologist. Many specialized in their respectful field. Move toward together to get a world view of human life. History is a word that is always driven out, to look back at a period of time and one might compare the pervious time to the present. It’s vital for us mortal to understand where came from and where we are going. Since history often does repeats itself, it may be good, to look backwards

Friday, December 27, 2019

Obesity Prevention Of Obesity - 2017 Words

Prevention of Obesity in the Children of Latino Parents in California Public Health Issue Obesity is one of the biggest problems in the U.S. that causes significant numbers of morbidity and mortality rates. These rates have been significantly increasing over the past few decades affecting both well developed, and moderately developed countries. The problem is not only present within adult population but is also a considerable issue among children in the US. The cause of obesity, is the difficulty to resist the extremely plentiful variety of foods and fast food restaurants in our world today (Freedman, 2011). Many health issues such as heart diseases, diabetes, cancers, chronic pulmonary diseases, and neurological disease are the direct result of constant and uncontrolled overeating. This issue of obesity can be prevented or treated by the behavioral modification, where children are controlled and taught healthy eating habits. This method is one of the least expensive with positive outcomes. PHNs must acquire a role of educator to teach children and the ir families the healthy eating habits, and weight management. There are about 25 million children that are overweight in the U.S. or at risk for becoming obese. Luzier and colleagues suggest that there is an increase in cases of obesity among families of low socioeconomic status. Among Mexican Americans, the statistics accounted for 44% of children with obesity and comparing that with Caucasian which were 29%. TheShow MoreRelatedObesity And The Prevention Of Obesity1496 Words   |  6 PagesThe epidemic if obesity has increased dramatically among children. Studies show nearly forty percent of American school age children are obese (Berk, 2008). Obesity has become a big problem with children because the children are falling in the eating habits of their parents. Children have also started playing video games which doesn’t require any exercise. Children sit home all day and eat. The difference from then and now is that children didn’t have all those video games and they wanted to go outRead MoreChildhood Obesity Prevention1264 Words   |  5 PagesChildhood Obesity Prevention Childhood obesity is a huge problem in our society, so here are two articles that researched one option to aid in the prevention of the epidemic: vegetarianism. The first article â€Å"Vegetarian Diets and Childhood Obesity Prevention† by Joan Sabate` and Michelle Wien from The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition May 2010 vol. 91 no. 5 1525S-1529S and the second article is â€Å"Vegetarian Children: Appropriate and Inappropriate Diets† by Cathy Jacobs, MS, RD,: and JohannaRead More Prevention of Obesity Essay1265 Words   |  6 Pagesrelation to the prevention of obesity. An insight into the prevalence of obesity as well as the causes and its effects shall be evaluated. Public health strategies on the prevention of obesity and its effects in relation to Government strategies shall be addressed. A snapshot about the role of the nurse as an educator in relation to this public health issue as well as strategies formulated by Hillingdon PCT to prevent obesity and how it focuses on other diseases associated with obesity shall be discussedRead MoreObesity And Methods Of Prevention1631 Words   |  7 PagesOmer Professor Pozos Biology 100 9 December 2014 Obesity and Methods of Prevention In the United States alone, there are more than 78.6 million obese adults. Obesity is a disease that is growing rapidly and has the ability to rip families apart due to the massive destruction it causes to one’s health. Obesity is a very deadly disease and it needs to be stopped. But are there ways to prevent it and save many lives? In this essay, I will explain obesity from a biological perspective and state the differentRead MoreEducation, Prevention And Control Of Obesity944 Words   |  4 Pagesvarious programs aimed at education, prevention and control of obesity. Below we will discuss some of the programs initiated by the federal and state government to fight this epidemic. The program Healthy people 2020 - a broad federal program with the goal of improving the health of all Americans. Under Healthy People 2020, several initiatives have been established with the help of other government offices to target different approaches in combating obesity. â€Å"Aim for a Healthy Weight† for exampleRead MoreEssay On Prevention Of Overweight And Obesity729 Words   |  3 PagesA systematic review by Wofford (2008) identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of overweight and obesity in children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis or threads in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. So far, many behavioral/nutrition interventions in schools, communities or within the home have been considered. But the literatureRead MoreEthics And Prevention Of Childhood Obesity946 Words   |  4 PagesPractice I ssue and Significance of Obesity management and prevention The practice issue in question is the management and prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile (Lopez, 2016. p 243). This problem is highly influenced by factors such as lack of activity, high caloric intake more than what the body needs to function well. Childhood obesity is at alarming rate in the United States. It is one of the major publicRead MorePrevention Of Child Obesity And Children Essay3422 Words   |  14 Pages Prevention of Child Obesity in Children Anthony Smith East Tennessee State University â€Æ' Prevention of Child Obesity in Children Introduction Over the years, several issues have affected populations in the world. These issues have ranged from political, economic, social and most importantly, health matters. Factually, health matters have been at the cause of outcries around theRead MoreObesity And Pregnancy : Early Education And Prevention1290 Words   |  6 PagesObesity and Pregnancy: Early education and prevention Alicia Gonzalez de Arreola ENG 122: English Composition Professor Amy Erickson August 25, 2014 â€Æ' Obesity and Pregnancy: Early Education and Prevention Obesity has become an epidemic not only in the United States, it is worldwide (Sullivan, 2014). Obesity affects both mother and child leading to severe complications during and after birth, therefore measures should be taken to monitor and educate women and women who plan on becoming pregnant.Read MoreChildhood Obesity : Health Issues And Prevention921 Words   |  4 PagesChildhood Obesity: Health Issues and Prevention Introduction Obesity as an epidemic has become increasingly troublesome as it has tripled its rate in the current generation of children and adolescents (CDC, 2015). It has been linked to various health related problems that decrease the quality of life and a serious threat to the longevity of the young generation (MDCH, 2009). Obese children can suffer with debilitating, if not fatal diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, not to mention its psychosocial

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Raising The Federal Minimum Wage - 1277 Words

The idea of raising the federal minimum wage that has developed nation wide attention, including protesting and arguments, has caused many discussions on why it could potentially help the economy grow and how it could result in the crash of the economy. Many people feel like raising the federal minimum wage is a must, while others think it will destroy the economy. There are many benefits that come with raising the federal minimum wage, but those benefits also come with many disadvantages. The first federal minimum wage mandated by the government was in 1938. When the first minimum wage became law in 1938, it was set at just 25 cents. Today, the federal minimum wage mandated by the government is set at $7.25 an hour. â€Å"Many states have their own set minimum wages, which are currently above $7.25 per hour already. Currently, 29 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) have minimum wages above the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. D.C. s new wage of $10.50 an hour makes it the first jurisdiction to cross the $10 threshold among the states,† (Halvorson). The last time that the federal minimum wage mandated by the government was changed was over 8 years ago. â€Å"The last time Congress voted to raise the minimum wage to its current rate of $7.25 an hour was on May 24, 2007. Since then, the cost of life s essentials has shot up. Groceries cost 20% more, a gallon of gas costs 25% more, and average tuition at a community college increased 44%. But the minimum wage remains atShow MoreRelatedRaising The Federal Minimum Wage889 Words   |  4 Pages In my report, I will go into detail and show how raising the federal minimum wage would positively effect the economy. In doing so, I will be discussing how an increase in the federal minimum wage would make a vast improvement on the way many low income families live, and also how raising the federal minimum wage would boost the economy as it desperately needs. In raising the federal minimum wage, one might argue that it would cause a spike in the unemployment rate. The reasoning is that it wouldRead MoreRaising The Federal Minimum Wage799 Words   |  4 Pages In the US, President Barack Obama urges Congress to raise the federal minimum wage to $10.10 an hour from $7.25. Although some Republicans oppose to this action, overwhelming majority of Americans see that is a good idea (The Guardian, 2014). Regarding to the issue of minimum wage, there have been lots of debates for a long time. Some economists such as Milton Friedman deeply believe that minimum wage kills jobs, but some like Alan Krueger and David Card think, to some extend, it actually increasedRead MoreRaising The Federal Minimum Wage1225 Words   |  5 Pages Study shows that wage increases do lower poverty, by 2.4% if wage at $8.00, consistent with other studies. (Washington Post/ Arin Dube) 1. Raising the federal minimum wage doesn’t cause substantial unemployment as most economists agree, including over 600 economists who wrote a letter to Congress urging a wage increase, and the Economic Policy Institute. A. Identify shortcomings of the opposition (fallacies they make, or weaknesses in the evidence they use) 1. Arin Dube’s study would be great,Read MoreRaising The Federal Minimum Wage969 Words   |  4 Pages At the heart of this plan was the idea that wages must be set and fair. â€Å"No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country.†(Roosevelt) This plan became the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set the Federal Minimum wage. Minimum wage has increased, slowly, over the years, but has not kept up with its intended purpose. Raising the federal minimum wage to a fair living wage level will improve the lives of the working poorRead MoreThe Benefits of Raising the Federal Minimum Wage1334 Words   |  6 PagesPicture this: You are a single parent of two, you work 40 hours a week plus occasional overtime at a minimum wage paying job, you struggle to put food on the table to feed your family, and then you receive a call from the bank saying that your home is being foreclosed. This is the situatio n faced by thousands of Americans every year due to low income and wealth inequality. The federal minimum wage (FMW) as of April 2014 is $7.25, which is not enough to keep a family of two above the poverty line.Read MoreEconomic Outcomes Of Raising The Federal Minimum Wage1489 Words   |  6 Pagespercent of all wage and salary workers. Among those paid by the hour, 1.3 million earned exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. About 1.7 million had wages below the federal minimum. Together, these 3.0 million workers with wages at or below the federal minimum made up 3.9 percent of all hourly paid workers†(Ratio of Minimum Wage). The Federal minimum wage drives debate among people today, and with many wanting the federal government to raise the minimum wage to fifteen dollarsRead MoreMinimum Wage And Fight Income Equality On Numerous Occasions1470 Words   |  6 PagesPresident Obama has expressed his desire to raise the minimum wage and fight income equal ity on numerous occasions. On January 20, 2015, president Obama made the following statement in his State of the Union Address: Of course, nothing helps families make ends meet like higher wages†¦and to everyone in this Congress who still refuses to raise the minimum wage, I say this: if you truly believe you could work full-time and support a family on less than $15,000 a year, go try it. If not, vote to giveRead MoreMinimum Wage Laws For The United States Essay1742 Words   |  7 PagesThe minimum wage is the mandated price floor paid on hourly or daily basis for the employees regulated by the government or the union. In â€Å"Federal Minimum Wage†, New Zealand and Australia enacted the first minimum wage law during the late 19th century to prevent employers’ exploitation of workers. In 1912, Massachusetts passed the first minimum wage legislation in the US that was enforced for women and children, and fifteen more states followed in the next eleven years. Howe ver, the Supreme CourtRead MoreU.s. Federal Minimum Wage Essay951 Words   |  4 PagesCongress passed the federal minimum wage law in 1938 as part of their Fair Labor Standards Act. Federal minimum wages were intended to ensure fair wages were paid to an alarming amount of women and youths employed and paid substandard wages. This also seems to be the case today, where countless Americans who work full time, cannot make ends meet by making minimum wage. Evidence shows that raising the minimum wage would drive consumer spending, thus producing faster macroeconomic growth. Wage stagnation isRead MoreU.s. Federal Minimum Wage Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesThe current U.S. Federal Minimum Wage is $7.25 per hour. In just two years from 2013, the demanded from advocates for raising minimum wage rose from $9 to $15. However, raising the minimum wage is more complex than simply raising the number of federal standard of pay for employees. Relative control groups and other market activiti es play a part in the outcome of the minimum wage. For example, one instance of market activity was observers said that raising the minimum wage did not hurt individuals;

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

A Comparison Between The Works Of Amedeo Modigliani And Jacques Villon Essay Example For Students

A Comparison Between The Works Of Amedeo Modigliani And Jacques Villon Essay Italian-born Cubist painter, Amedeo Modigliani 1884-1920 and the French, Jacques Villon 1875-1963, both painted vibrant and expressive portraits during the early twentieth-century. In this case, the chosen portraits are Modiglianis Portrait of Mrs. Hastings, 1915 and Villons Mme. Fulgence, 1936. Both of these compositions are portraits. Nothing is of more importance than the sitter herself. The female sitter in Modiglianis piece, sits in an almost dizzying pose with a twist in her elongated neck a Modigliani trademark, a stylized and mask-like head and a columnar neck. All of which give the sitter a blank and ashen expression. She looks at the viewer, head-on with a most piercing air in her eyes. In Villons case, his female sitter has been created solely with the use of layered colours and a very random synthetist outline technique a similar technique the post-impressionist painter Gaugin used. Modigliani outlines his figure moreso in black than Villon. Mme. Fulgences age is understood by the strong dynamic colour quality that has been used to break her face apart. In a way, these colourful divisions act as wrinkles. For instance, the chunk of layered pink on her lip creates a scowl and the heavily applied white on her nose helps it to seem upright; a snobbish upturn. Colours such as the orange, have been used to highlight her left cheek and only visible ear. With these effects, the viewer sees Mme. Fulgence as a very proper andposh if you will woman. Bitterness is only a common linkage with the other attributes. Modiglianis Hastings on the other hand seems to be an intense woman of a compassionate nature. Both of these pieces have relied heavily on the expressive and wild use of colour to create emotional expressions and unerring form. Both of these portraits are created using oil paintsModiglianis on cardboard and Villons on canvas. The most important element that draws their work away from the mainstream is their heavy application of paint. Although they both apply their colour liberally, Modiglianis strokes are thick, jagged, and for the most part random. His brushstrokes are also particularly long, whereas Villons are short and brief. Modigliani uses monochromatic hues of red to create the prominent colour of the piece and like Villon, he has used a very vague background to express the importance of his sitter. Colour is of equal importance in both pieces as it draws the viewer in and allows the viewers eyes to be brought around the piece. Modigliani has split his background from top to bottom, using red and strokes of burnt sienna at first, then an auburn and deeper red for the bottom. This definite split in the background creates a base so that the chair on which the sitter is seated does not get lost and mistaken for part of the background. The weighty application in both portraits creates a brilliant textural finish. The expressive nature that is brought out in the quick brushstrokes  is equally defined in the actual texture of the painting plain. In Modiglianis background, the strokes are long and applied at a rapid pace. Whereas in Villons background, his strokes are shorter and seem to have more of a planned location just as Seurat applies his paint. Villon has placed his subject in front of the background in an almost symmetrical manner. This poses the idea that the two really do not have an intense relationship whatsoever. The Madame is not quite centred to look at the viewer dead-on as Modiglianis is, her body is shifted slightly to the left. Modiglianis sitter, on the other hand has been placed carefully on her foreground, off to the left. This brings in ample space for the chair. Having his subject seated, Modigliani says more about the subjects surroundings. .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .postImageUrl , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:hover , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:visited , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:active { border:0!important; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:active , .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5 .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u418441b8078953def8c9fdc50af220a5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Business Comparison Of Mail Communications New Technologies Have Alway EssayVillon has merely placed Mme. Fulgence in front of a green background, with only the highlights of her age to carry one through the piece. As stated before, the negative space that is prevalent in both pieces is highly effective as it does not take away from the issue at hand: the seated. Both artists have used the application of their colours to their advantage in creating emotion merely through its use. Whether the colours are blended like Modigliani or choppy and difficult to ingest for the colours are used at their most vibrant tone as Villons are, both artists used an extreme colour palette to bring forth the ideal emotions and/or physical standing of their models.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Piagets stages of cognitive development free essay sample

Piaget is a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. Piaget believed that children play an active role in the growth of intelligence. He regarded children as philosophers who perceive the world as he or she experiences it (ICELS). Therefore in Piaget’s most prominent work, his theory on the four stages of cognitive development, much of his inspiration came from observations of children. The theory of cognitive development focuses on mental processes such as perceiving, remembering, believing, and reasoning. Through his work, Piaget showed that children think in considerably different ways than adults do and as such he saw cognitive development as a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from maturation and experience (1973). To explain this theory, Piaget used the concept of stages to describe his development as a sequence of the four following stages: sensory – motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. There are three elements however to understanding his theory of cognitive development. We will write a custom essay sample on Piagets stages of cognitive development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They are schema, the fours process that enable transition from on stage to another, and finally the four stages themselves. He began his studies by making naturalistic observations. Piaget made careful, detailed observations of children, typically his own children or their friends, from these he wrote diary descriptions charting their development. He also conducted clinical interviews and observations of older children who were able to understand questions and hold conversations (McLeod 2009). Based off these observation Piaget laid the ground work for his theories on cognitive development starting with the schema. A schema is the basic building block of intelligent behavior, a form of organizing information that a person uses to interpret the things he or she sees, hears, smell, and touches (Singer Revenson, 1997). A schema can be thought of as a unit of knowledge, relating to one aspect of the world including objects, actions, and abstract (theoretical) concepts (ICELS). They are used to understand and to respond to situations and are stored and applied when needed. A child is considered to be in a state of equilibrium or in a state of cognitive balance when she or he is capable of explaining what he or she is perceiving (schema) at the time (ICELS). The processes that form the building blocks of a schema are assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation and accommodation are two of the four processes that enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another. Assimilation is the process of interpreting experiences in terms of schema whereas accommodation is the process of adjusting schema based on new information or new experiences. For example, a child may see a robin flying and thus conclude that all birds fly (assimilation), however upon learning a chicken cannot fly said child would have to adjust their existing schema of birds to accommodate chickens (accommodation). The other two of the four processes that enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another are equilibrium and disequilibrium. Equilibration is said to be the force which moves development along. Equilibrium occurs when a childs schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, a state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (Piaget 1973, p. 36). Thus the accommodation comes into play in order to restore a state of equilibrium. Together, assimilation and accommodation are processes of adjustment to changes in the environment and are defined as adaptation, the continuous process of using the environment to learn (ICELS). And, according to Piaget, adaptation is the most important principle of human functioning. With these basic elements of cognitive learning established Piaget then began to establish his four stages of cognitive development. The first being the sensory – motor stage. This stage is considered to extend from birth to approximately age two. During this stage senses, reflexes, and motor abilities develop rapidly. During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment. Toward the end of the sensory-motor stage, the ability to form primitive mental images develops as the infant acquires object permanence (ICELS). Object permanence is the understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view. Until then, an infant doesn’t realize that objects can exist apart from him or herself. Thus in this stage behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence. The next stage is the preoperational stage. This stage extend from ages 2 to 7 and during this stage the child is not yet able to think logically. With the acquisition of language, the child is able to represent the world through mental images and symbols, but in this stage, these symbols depend on his own perception and his intuition (Piaget 1973, p. 36). Preoperational children are completely egocentric. Although they begin to take greater interest in objects and people around them, they see these things from only their point of view. This also has been said to be the stage of curiosity. Preoperational children are always questioning and investigating new things and since they know the world only from their very limited point of view they make up explanations for things they cannot explain (ICELS). The preoperational stage is therefore characterized by egocentric thought and the inability for children to adopted alternative viewpoints. According to Piaget this is the stage at which children’s’ thoughts differ the most from adults. The third stage is the concrete operational stage. This stage extends from ages 7 to 11 and it is during this stage that a child is able to perform mental operations. Piaget defines a mental operation as an interiorized action, an action performed in the mind which permits the child to think about physical actions that he or she previously performed (Piaget 1973, p. 36). At this time children demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning and their thinking becomes less egocentric as they are increasingly aware of external events. The primary characteristic of concrete operational thought is its reversibility; the child can mentally reverse the direction of his or her thought (Piaget 1973, p. 36). For example a child knows something they can add they can also subtract. Conservation is also a major acquisition of the concrete operational stage. Piaget defines conservation as the ability to see that objects or quantities remain the same despite a change in their physical appearance. Children are thus able to learn to conserve such quantities as number, mass, area, weight, and volume (Piaget 1973, p. 36). The characteristics of the concrete stage are thus conservation, mental operations, and the ability for children to adopt alternative viewpoints. The final stage is the formal operational stage, it extends from ages 11 to 16. Unlike the concrete operational stage the formal stage does not deal with thinking in the present but rather deals with the ability to think about the future, abstract thought, and the hypothetical. Piaget’s final stage coincides with the beginning of adolescence, and marks the start of abstract thought and deductive reasoning. Thought is more flexible, rational, and systematic. The individual can now conceive all the possible ways they can solve a problem, and can approach a problem from several points of view (Piaget 1973, p. 360). Although Piaget believed in lifelong intellectual development, he insisted that the formal operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, and that continued intellectual development in adults depends on the accumulation of knowledge (ICELS). Thus this staged is marked by the child’s ability to harmoniously reason abstractly and logically as well as not be limited to concrete thinking. The influence of Piaget’s ideas in developmental psychology has been enormous. He changed how people viewed the child’s world and their methods of studying children. Piagets ideas have generated a huge amount of research which has increased our understanding of cognitive development. His ideas have even been of practical use in understanding and communicating with children, particularly in the field of education. Piaget did not directly relate his theory to education, however many researchers have explained how features of Piagets theory can be applied to teaching and learning. One example of Piaget’s cognitive development theory influencing education can be seen in the concept of discovery learning; the idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring. This concept sparked a huge reform in many primary schools’ curriculums. These reforms held recurring themes of individual learning, flexibility in the curriculum, the centrality of play in childrens learning, the use of the environment, learning by discovery and the importance of the evaluation of childrens progress (McLeod 2009). In addition since Piagets theory is based upon biological maturation, children should not be taught certain concepts until they have reached the appropriate stage cognitive development. Overall five overreaching concepts have been newly been applied to primary education based off Piaget’s theories: Focus on the process of learning rather than the end product of it, using active methods that require rediscovering or reconstructing truths, using collaborative as well as individual activities (so children can learn from each other), devising situations that present useful problems and create disequilibrium in the child, and evaluate the level of the childs development so suitable tasks can be set (McLeod 2009). Although Piaget’s findings did make many groundbreaking and seemingly beneficial contributions to education there are some skeptics as to whether or not his theories are on cognitive development are on point. For example Vygotsky and Bruner would rather not talk about stages at all, preferring to see development as continuous. Vygotsky, a Soviet Belarusian psychologist and founder of a theory of human cultural and biosocial development or cultural-historical psychology. Vygotskys theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of making meaning. Unlike Piaget he believed social learning precedes development (McLeod 2007). Bruner, a psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, would similarly argue against Piaget’s theory of â€Å"readiness. † Burner places importance on outcomes of learning, include not just the concepts, categories, and problem-solving procedures invented previously by the culture, but also the ability to invent these things for oneself (McLeod 2008). Therefore he argued that schools waste time trying to match the complexity of subject material to a childs cognitive stage of development. In addition the concept of schema is incompatible with the theories of Bruner and Vygotsky. Behaviorism would also refute Piaget’s schema theory because is cannot be directly observed as it is an internal process (McLeod 1009). Therefore, they would claim it cannot be objectively measured. Finally as several studies have shown Piaget underestimated the abilities of children because his tests were sometimes confusing or difficult to understand (McLeod 2009). Also since the children he used for his studies were mainly his own his sample is biased, and consequently the results of these studies cannot be generalized to children from different cultures. Piaget’s theories on cognitive development have been groundbreaking and extremely beneficial to the world of developmental psychology. However there are some notable discrepancies with his studies such and limited and biased sampling. There are also distinguished rebuttals and argumentations for opposing theories. However Piaget’s work remains the stepping stone for studies of cognitive development and remain an extremely crucial part of developmental psychology as a whole.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Afghanistan and Pakistan Border Region Issues Impact on Pakistan Society

Introduction There are various issues that are associated with geographical regions especially where political aspects are involved. Some of the issues that are experienced in the Afghanistan and Pakistan due to the border region issues are; lack of trust between this two geographical areas and blaming one another which makes the process of solving the issue so difficult, problem in meeting basic social needs due to high poverty levels, high levels of unemployment and social injustice, and internal displacements of persons among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Afghanistan and Pakistan Border Region Issues: Impact on Pakistan Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There has been lots of violence on both sides of the Afghanistan and Pakistan border especially after the US was involved in leading war in Afghanistan. The two countries have been in conflicts for a long period of time and various terrorist at tacks have been executed as a way of revenging each others deeds. This paper discusses the various aspects related to the Afghanistan and Pakistan border with much emphasis being given to terrorism in both countries as it is the root cause of the violence. It also gives an insight on the effects of intervention by the super powers like the US and the impacts of the border region issues on the Pakistan society. Terrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Geopolitics Issues According to the (2011), terrorism is the use of violence and other forms of threats with an aim of intimidating or coercing people especially for political purposes. It can also be understood as the acts of violence that are usually committed by a group of people who usually view themselves as victimized by some particular historical happenings and hence carry out the terrorism actions as a way of fighting back. They usually gain some backing and support from governments and carry out unexpected a ttacks which lead to a lot of destruction and deaths as well as instilling fear and confusion among the nations affected. Terrorists on the other hand are persons usually from a certain group who engage in the planning and execution of violent acts like suicide bombings that are intended to cause deaths of innocent people and scare the rest hence making the chances of perpetrating further terrorist attacks better. Terrorism is spread by the terrorist in a strategic manner as they aim at causing the greatest effect that is achieved by causing as much deaths as possible and also instilling fear and confusion to as many people as possible. It entails acts like suicide bombing and affects the economies of the affected nations as well as the psychological and social status of the people. Advances in communication has in a way enhanced the perpetration of this evil acts. Other issues that promote the spread of terrorism are conflicts, poverty, social injustice, under-development, inexiste nce of the rule of law among others. This is because the above mentioned factors lead to lack of unity among the people and hence leads to instability which enhances acts of terrorism.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although terrorism is perpetrated by people from different religions, Islam religion the Muslims is mostly associated with it as opposed to other religions. This is particularly wrong since Islam is just a religion and some Muslims are against terrorism just a Christians and other religions are although most of them are involved in it and in most cases those who are involved with the terrorism attacks associate it with the religion making the world to view terrorism as an act that is directly associated with the Muslims. Geopolitics entails a combination of geographic factors and political issues that influence a region or nation. It entails issues like leve ls of the economic growth and political power in a nation and it is usually unique to a given nation. The Afghanistan for example has a lot of geo-strategic and geopolitical significance as opposed to Pakistan and could attract a lot of interest from the super power and other international relations. Afghanistan offers better long term strategic prospects as compared to Pakistan in regard to the United States national security interests and regional strategy and hence its greater intervention in the wars. Pakistan on the other hand has some serious security threats due to its geographical location, bordering India, China and Afghanistan with political problems with India and Afghanistan. Pakistan has less geo-strategic and geopolitical significance for example to the United States as it appeals to the US only on some specific areas like its use a rental estate hence aiding in meeting the US strategic ends. The differences between these two nations lead to their differences in their efforts to fight terrorism (Kapila, 2009). Terrorism in Pakistan There is the existence of political crisis in Pakistan as a result of political conflict among the different factions in the nation and security threats from its neighbours especially Afghanistan and India. Terrorism in Pakistan is a serious issue and cannot be underemphasized as it has been linked with a lot of deaths and destruction and most importantly pulling down the nation in terms of development and prosperity. Terrorism in Pakistan has been executed with varying motives and with the application of advanced weapons hence causing a lot of harm and attracting a lot of local and international attention. Terrorism in Pakistan can be traced to various causes some of which are; permissive factors such as modernization, urbanization and industrialization which promote the acts of terrorism through the principle of creating vulnerabilities, motivation and opportunities that foster terrorism and also direct situational f actors like discrimination, grievances, social injustice or inequality, elite disaffection and lack of chances that allow for political participation for all among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Afghanistan and Pakistan Border Region Issues: Impact on Pakistan Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although there has been a large number of terrorist attacks world wide, Pakistan attacks amount to 2.9 percent of the world’s terrorist attacks. This shows that although terrorism is a major issue in Pakistan, it does not contribute much to the general world’s terrorism. It is however portrayed negatively by the media where it is shows it as a failed nation which is marginalized, under-developed, and poor and where terrorism is the main center of concern. This is however not true as Pakistan has been able to achieve some economic and even military levels that could otherwise not be achievable in a state that experience all the mentioned problematic issues or where systems do not work. Some other evidence against the media claims on the Pakistan’s state exist for instance it is ranked the 7th atomic power in the world, and its military is also the seventh in the world in regard to the number of personnel who are active in their duties among other achievements. Some of the factors that have lead to the current state of Pakistan include; lack of democracy which has led to political alienation and deprivation and a sense of hopelessness and lack of power among the people making the nation susceptible to more terrorist attacks. Corruption is also a major issue of concern which has resulted in unequal distribution of resources and wealth among the regions and perpetration of other immoral practices like drug trafficking. The imbalance is also enhanced by the social injustice and discrimination. Poor education system is also a contributing factor as it does not effective ly meet the needs of the country as it was initially set up to suit the needs of the colonizers. Those who benefit from the education system therefore become of no notable importance to the nation as they ought to be if the system was compatible with the nation’s needs. The prevalence of a weak judicial system also makes it possible for the criminal activities to be executed easily as appropriate measures to the offenders are not taken. The Taliban are also a great threat to Pakistan as it has affected its security through the various attacks it has been involved with and the power it has in the execution of the destructive acts (Bajoria, 2009). Impact on Pakistan Society The impact of terrorism and other issues as a result of the Afghanistan and Pakistan border conflicts .is experienced differently by the two nations and also the others that were affected. Although the United States promised to make the world a better and safer place, it did not work towards achieving the ex pected results and the situations even became worse in some states or nations. Here are some of the resultant situations on the Pakistan society. The Taliban is increasing in number and their energy in executing their activities hence increased threat to Pakistan.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society also faces some adverse effects for instance increase in the number of displaced persons, increase in spending on health matters as most people become injured and the poverty levels also lead to poor nutrition hence poor health, and increase in the cost of education as a result of high levels of insecurity and existence of less education institution. The border conflicts and terrorism has also brought some problems in maintaining the Pakistan’s economic growth as a result of instability and hence the country’s growth domestic product (GDP) is low and the debts are high. The tourism sector is also negatively affected as tourists do not feel secure to visit the country. The production sector is also affected as the cost of production goes up and the business confidence falls making the business rivals for instance India to take advantage of the situation and exploit it. The foreign investments and stock exchange also decline. Unemployment and smuggling levels is also on the rise. Some of the recommendations that Pakistan should adopt to improve the situation include; increasing employment opportunities to its people so that they are able to meet their basic necessities and fulfilling its promise of providing basic needs like shelter, food and clothing to the citizens. This will enhance loyalty and patriotism and everybody will be ready to work towards improving the nation’s condition. There should also be steps towards reducing corruption where the government should enhance accountability in all its activities to gain its citizens’ trust. Justice through the judiciary should also be allowed to every citizen without any form of discrimination so that everyone can feel well represented. There should also be close relations between the citizens and the government for example through creation of negotiation forums. The government should also invest in the establishment of institutions and departments that are aimed towards imp roving the living standards of the citizens by providing services like job opportunities, means of airing their views and grievances and enhancing the process of service delivery. Facilities like hospitals, education institutions and social clubs should also be established as a way of building trust and goodwill between the government and the citizens. All these steps by the government will create a good relationship where everyone will have the urge to work towards making the country a better place (Bajoria, 2009). Terrorism in Afghanistan Terrorism in Afghanistan can be traced back in 2001 when the then United States president, Bush, had an attempt to bring down the Taliban government which its people valued so much as it had been a safe haven to the leader of Al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, and all its members. The US powers towards doing this was not successful as there were conflicts among the various leaders and also the remaining Taliban forces. The situation was worse in the year 2008 as the violence heightened and hence worsening the condition for the Afghanistan’s civilians. The conflict between the United States and Taliban continued as the latter could not bear the pain of losing its powers and hence looked for means of fighting back. The ongoing border region conflict between Afghanistan and Pakistan is basically as a result of tribal allegiances. This is because some tribes have occupied both parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan for instance the Pashtuns and Balochis .The Durand line is considered a soft border by people from both sides and hence it is the source of the conflicts and terrorism attacks between the two regions as either of the two sides want to have the full share and control of the border. There has been a lot of mistrust and bitterness between the Afghanistan and Pakistan as a result of the long history where they used to offer refuge each other’s opponents for instance Afghanistan harboured the Balochi people while Pakista n sheltered and trained the mujahadeen and maintained the Afghani Taliban. The porosity has enhanced the perpetration of terrorism as it makes it easy to undertake the criminal activities since the communication and transport or movement is easy (Kapila, 2009). The US in the war against terrorism in Afghanistan after 9/11 It is the 9/11 attack that led to involvement of the United States of America in Afghanistan’s activities with an aim of solving the situation. It did so by attempting to tumble the Taliban government in Afghanistan which was deemed to be involved in the protection of the Al Qaeda. This was however not an effective action or step as it did not solve the problem of concern. This is because it shifted the problem to the neighboring Pakistan as the Taliban moved their operations into Pakistan as a way of revenging by continuing the war. It is from this time that violence has existed along the border. This shows the ineffectiveness of the steps taken by the US a s it did not help control the terrorism but rather created a more serious and dangerous situation. The US could have dealt with the root causes of the problem rather than trying to solve the issue without prior considerations of the consequences of their actions (Pelovangu, 2010). Nature of US and International Responses and the World Perception on War on Terrorism The United States of America seem to be taking a wrong move towards fighting the terrorism ordeal. This is so because of taking Afghanistan and Pakistan as a single geo-strategic and geopolitical entity in its move towards restoring peace and stability among the nations and more especially along the border region. This can not take place effectively as Afghanistan and Pakistan are two distinct and separate entities in terms of geo-strategic and geopolitical issues associated with them for instance Afghanistan is a class higher than Pakistan in terms of power and region. It is also more economically stable due to the ample deposits of oil and natural gas and taking them as one will definitely not work out well. All in all there are mixed perceptions and views on the act of the United States of America towards fighting terrorism as some people take it as a selfish act where the US wanted to benefit from it for instance, it is said that if Afghanistan was not geo-strategically and geo-politically important, the United States of America could not have much interest on it and could not have had much intervention as it is the case on Pakistan which is not that well of. The further terrorist attacks in places like Pakistan, Madrid, India and London are also a clear indication that the more the war on terror unfolds, the more the world becomes unstable and hence the process of dealing with the war has been unsuccessful. Others however view it positively and see it as a saviour for example the number of terrorism attacks fell by 18 percent from 2007 to 2008 and it has been associated with the US intervention . The national counterterrorism centre also asserts that the number of world wide attacks by terrorists in the year 2008 was 11,770 and the number of deaths was 15,756 while the attacks in the year 2007 was 14,506 and the deaths were 22,508. This improvement in the stability among nations has been accredited towards the antagonistic efforts by the United States and other international forces through application of intensified law enforcement, new laws regarding counterterrorism, blocking terrorist financing and intelligence gathering and sharing among other strategies (Kellerhals, 2009). Conclusion It is evident that Afghanistan and Pakistan are at war with one another and the situation is exacerbated by the fact that the two nations have different geo-strategic and geopolitics significance with Afghanistan being on the lead especially in regard to the United States and other major regional and international powers. The differences in the nations’ significance has for instanc e been linked with the United State’s change of priorities in its efforts towards fighting the war against terrorism or restoration of stability and security giving much emphasis on Afghanistan as opposed to Pakistan which is in a worse state than Afghanistan. Terrorism is a great hindrance to economic prosperity, security, geo-strategic sustainability, political power and stability and the general well being of a nation and should therefore be dealt with appropriately from the root causes. Reference List Bajoria, J. (2009). The Troubled Afghan-Pakistani Border. Web. Unabridged (2011). Terrorism. Web. Kapila, S. (2009). Afghanistan and Pakistan: Comparative Analysis of Geo-strategic and Geo-political Significance. South Asian Analysis Group. Web. Kellerhals, M. D. (2009). Terrorist Attacks Fell 18 Percent in 2008, Report Says. US Policy. Web. Pelovangu, R. (2010). The U.S War on Terror: Is the American Invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq Justified? Web. This essay on Afghanistan and Pakistan Border Region Issues: Impact on Pakistan Society was written and submitted by user Easton Gilmore to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.